Why are memorandums needed?
• Request information
• Request and confirm appointments
• Reply to someone else’s request
• Transmit materials
• Acknowledge receipt of materials
• Report information on sales, progress, schedules, assignments, and so on
• Clarify a procedure, solve a problem, make a suggestion, and so on.
The structure to begin a memo
• From: (person or group sending the memo)
• To: (person or group to whom the memo is addressed)
• RE: (the subject of the memo, this should be in bold)
• The term “memorandum” can be used instead of “memo”.
• A memo is generally is not as formal as a written letter. However, it is certainly not as informal as a personal letter.
• The tone of a memo is generally friendly as it is a communication between colleagues.
• Keep the memo concise and to the point.
• If necessary, introduce the reason for the memo with a short paragraph.
• Use bullet points to explain the most important steps in a process.
• Use a short thank you to finish the memo. This need not be as formal as in a written letter.
The examples of ways to begin a memo:
• I am writing to inform you of ……
• In response to your request, I am writing to provide you with recommendations on…..
• The purpose of this memo is to…..
• This memo provides information about……
ORGANIZING OF MEMOS
• The direct plan for routine memos
Begin: theresa, will you please schedule…
Provide details: …Tom called this morning … he wants to see…
Close : Please be sure to…..
• The indirect plan for persuasive memos
- use an attention-getting opening
- make factual statements
- present your request
- specify the action
• The indirect plan for bad-news memos
o use a neutral opening statement
o state the reasons for the bad news (but not the bad news itself) positively, tactfully and cousteously
o State the bad news
o suggest alternatives, if any
o close with a goodwill statement.
• Special memos are not routine, ordinary, or common. Example: informational memorandums, analytical memorandums, recommendation memorandums, and report (or progress report) memorandums.
COMPARED WITH ROUTINE MEMOS
The special memos:
1. Tend to be longer
2. Deal with more complex and more important issues
3. Deserve a higher degree of formality
4. Receive more executive attention
5. Are subject to greater scrutiny and criticism because of their importance.
1. Informational memorandums
• Presents fact or data on a single topic.
• This special-purpose memorandum differs from the routine memorandum only in complexity and length.
• Informational memorandums use a direct approach: begin by topics, then organize the ideas logically, and provide the necessary details under each idea.
2. Analytical Memorandums
• Defines the problem for the readers, indicates the means by which the writer gathered and analyzed the data, shows the reader how the writer arrived at conclusions, and presents recommendations based on the conclusions drawn.
The organizational of AM
1. describe the problem analyzed or the task assigned
2. Explain the procedures used for gathering the data
3. State your conclusion and give full supporting details.
4. Include relevant issues if any.
3. Recommendation Memorandums
• Are used to suggest new ideas designed to streamline procedures, institute new product, lower operating costs, increase efficiency, or improve the company operations in some other way.
• First step: summarize the recommendation in the opening paragraph.
Organize the RM
1. Explain in detail the circumstances that prompted your recommendation.
2. Outline specifically all aspects of your recommendation. Be sure to include suggestion for implementing your ideas and any costs that may be incurred.
3. Show how the company will benefit from adopting your recommendation
4. Offer to answer any questions or supply additional information, if necessary.
4. Progress Report Memorandums
• Provide an update on projects presently under way.
• To furnish management with information regarding the status of a long-term activity.
• To cover the developments and advancements made on a particular project for a specified period.
An outline for PRM
1. Identify the project by name, and briefly describe its objectives.
2. Summarize the progress reported in previous memorandums
3. Provide a detailed presentations of activities, accomplishments, and setback for the specific period covered by the program report memorandum. Use presentations by topic method or chronological presentations method.
4. Project future progress in terms of a completion timeline.
VISUAL TECHNIQUES For Special Memos
Lists help to display information, ideas or statistics. There are often usually:
1. Numbered or bulleted
2. Treated as individual line or paragraph
3. Indented from the left margin (sometimes from the right margin too)
4. Separated by extra line space
TABLE, CHARTS, AND GRAPHS
They are tools of simplification, make it easy the writer to present statistical data and they make it easy for the reader to grasp the general picture and find specific statistics.
When the table is much longer, separate it form the res of the memo. Prepare on a page by itself (or on several pages) and then provede a cross-reference in your memo, such as: “see the table on page ….”.
Be sure that you write clear, complete, and accurate : titles, headings, and source notes.
• Write concise titles, using clipped phrases that “tell the story”. Be sure to identify what you are providing, for which company or division or product or region, for which time period, and so on.
ESTIMATED FIVE YEARS SALES REVENUE
COMSUMER PRODUCTS DIVISION
• If the memo has several tables or chart:
SALES REVENUE, CONSUMER PRODUCTS DIVISION
2008 AND 2009 COMPARED
Table 1. SALES REVENUE, CONSUMER PRODUCTS DIVISION, 2008 AND 2009 COMPARED
• Column heading must be accurate, complete and clear.
District 2008 Sales (Rp) 2009 Sales (Rp) Increase/
Central 100.000.000 110.000.000 10
Source notes will help readers find the information (if they should want to) and will add credibility to your memo.
Example: Source: 2008 Indonesian central statistical report.
THE USES OF SHORT REPORTS
• Not more than 5 pages;
• To make internal communication easier;
• Reporting progress of company ;
• To confirm an informal transaction or policy.
BENEFIT OF SHORT REPORTS
• Time Efficiency
because no more than 5 pages, to read this report more quickly.
the information easier to remember or note it.
INFORMATIONAL AND ANALYTICAL REPORTS
• Informational report is similar with business letters, there are: clear, complete, true and brief.
• Writing style on informational reports just same as writing memo there clear and to the point.
• There are two kinds: periodic reports and organizing/personal activity reports.
• Report the task or job was finished on the time range periodic.
• Using informational memo format.
• Explain the routine responsibility
• Write about special task
• Planning activity for future.
Personal Activity Report
• To explain about activity personality.
• To inform management about important information.
• The activity such as: conference, meeting with supplier, attending an exhibition, etc.
• More complete than informational report
• To discuss a problem on the organization and take any alternative solution on the conclusion part.
• To give a recommendation of the best solution can be take to break the problem.
• Identify or define a specific topic or problem area.
• Offer data specifically related to the topic or problem.
• Interpret the meaning of the data – that is, indicate the trends or significant facts supported by the data.
• Draw conclusions based on the data, the trends, and the significant facts.
• Make recommendations based on the conclusions.
Minggu, 24 Oktober 2010
Diposkan oleh Hidden Leaf di 23.23